This page is dedicated to terminology to tourism and development.
1/ Tourism wordbook : People wishing to get involved in tourism or development, and those organising holidays may want to know professional lingo. These terms will also be useful for the debate on tourism and development as well as for alternative tourism actors who need to understand the functioning of main stream tourism. Here is a list proposed by the NTA
Travelers searching for a country or development information to understand local challenges to organise their trip in their prospect can refer to this page.
2/ International development wordbook :Ethical travel as well as solidarity project management imply to know the principles, notions and terms of international development. This link leads to an international development glossary. People interested in national or international development statistics can refer to this page.
3/ Alternative tourism word-book : The profusion of tourism types can create a confusion amongst travelers, professionals and inhabitants of touristy regions. These can seriously discredit alternative tourism and limited its impact. Even though they always use the same terms, definitions differ from a source to another. Eco-friendly, responsible, solidarity, fair, social or community based, these forms of tourism all integrate local populations, environmental protection or ergonomics without for that much giving much detail about their content. Thus why didn’t tourism professionals agree on a unique terminology ?
The proximity of these terms, their responsibilizing aspect and the absence of a central organ didn’t help to popularise alternative tourism. Never the less, they have their interest and deserve to be known to the public. All Exclusive thus provide here a a first fundamental definition of these terms. On the long run, each concept will be developed in a specific post with links to various articles of All Exclusive connected to this topic.
Agrotourism : Type of rural tourism consisting in the visit of a farm or the participation of tourists to field works. These trips can be organised by a tour operator or farmers themselves accommodation can be organised on the farm or in an external structure. .Agrotourism is growing in importance on social networks in a form similar to Voluntourism called woofing, an exchange of labor force for accommodation.
Alternative tourism : the different alternatives to classic tourism. Sustainable, ecological, solidarity, social, rural… these forms of tourism draws public attention to the tourism industry’s tendency to seek profitability of visits regions and people’s experiences. The term e does not give a precision to the content of the products. The objective is sometimes to imitate Tourism impact, sometimes to fuel local development.
Community Based Tourism : Form of integrated tourism aiming to contribute to a community economic and human development. It is based on the idea that local communities should be integrated in the tourism process at every stage : planning, management, and benefit redistribution. Sometimes, part of the revenue fund a local development project. CBT is also used as a tool for the valuation of cultures and the environment. These activities, thus, usually focus on nature and community culture.
Eco-tourism : Initially defined as a form of tourism in a natural habitat for the purpose of observing fauna and flora and supporting their protection. Eco-tourism was then associated with remarkable and fragile spaces, encouraging the development of a century old concept : national parks. With time, the notion evolved integrating in its functioning respect for societies and cultures near visited areas and eco-friendfly tourist accommodation, transports and procurement. In that prospect, eco-tourism is similar to sustainable tourism except for the fact that it is essentially focussed on discovering nature.
Fair Tourism : Form of tourism based on the principles of fair trade. It supposes optimized redistribution of benefits on a local basis, bypass of middle men and support to local activity, production and employment. This form of tourism is applicable to any tourism activity but requires pricing transparency which is hardly fully achievable due to the great number of service providers and professionals reluctance to reveal their commissions.
Mass tourism : Paris, Costa Brava, Taj Mahal, Niagara falls, Angkor, Disneyland : All these sites attract mass tourism. The popularity of a natural or cultural site, of a city or a point of interest provokes a massive attendance increased as technology and social progress arose in the 70’s. Mass tourism is strongly condemned for its impact on sites, natural resources, pricing of certain goods and the general degradation of local environment and cultures.
Pro poor tourism : This notion is strongly supported by the World Tourism Organization in the frame of Uns Millenium Development Goals which is first objective is poverty eradication. Social part of sustainable tourism, PPTprinciples are applicable to all kinds of Tourism. They consist in defining and use the most efficient ways to have poorer segments of the population benefit from tourism potential : low skilled jobs, trainings, micro loans or redistribution of benefits.
Responsible tourism : Specific behaviour of travelers, professionals and people at large. This term is particularly vague and can take various forms. Never the less, it supposes manifest optimisation of tourism activities to improve the impact of travel on the environment, cultures and economy. Like alternative tourism, this term does not refer to range of activity not a specific product but to a range of activity.
Slow-tourism : Slow tourism promotes a practice of travel aiming to appreciate a region’s specificity giving it time to visit you. This approach to travel stands out by the use of less fast and polluting means of transportation : bikes, hikes, horse ride, or boats. Slow tourism also requires openness to surprises. No precise planning, meeting time or itinerary, it is a discovery of travel as Rousseau would have lived it. It is before all an attitude : see the beauty of travel in meetings, in surprises, in slowness.
Social Tourism : All action consisting in the favoring democratisation of travel access. It can be a policy, a financial help, a tourist accommodation establishment simplified visa procedures or low cost air ticketing. Social tourism gradually integrates in its functioning local development notions. Social tourism thus has a double objective to help people travel and remote regions to exit their economic and social isolation.
Solidarity Tourism : The word solidarity means linked by a common interest. Solidarity tourism thus supposes a community of interest linking tourists, professionals and people living in visited regions. This community of interest arises from the exchange between tourists and the people they meet, creating the feeling of belonging to a group. A moral responsibility flows from this feeling and materialises as labor or a cash contribution to a local development project.
Sustainable tourism : Classic tourism optimisation based on the sustainable development triptych : environment, social and economic. Sustainable development principles can be applied to every type of tourism. It results in intern actions to improve all three of the activity’s economic, social and environmental impact of the activity. This concept is strongly supported by the World Tourism Organization but remains controversial due to possible marketing recycling.
Tourism : The 1991 Ottawa conference of the World Tourism Organization on travel and statistics gave the following definition of tourism : « The activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. » Ten years before, the Manilla Conference on world tourism stressed the importance of tourism : « Tourism is an activity considered essential to life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations. »
VolunTourism : Pay for or retributed, qualified or unqualified, it is a form of labor contribution to a development project taking place in the visited region. Duration can vary from a week to 24 months or more. Its impact strongly depends on the commitment and seriousness of the hosting organisation, the volunteer and the beneficiaries. Conditions and associated services vary from a project to another, in some cases accommodation and meal plans are provided by the beneficiary organisation that can as well organise transportation and excursions. Extreme precautions are required when considering a volunteer mission as serious cases of abuses such as fund misappropriation, or human traficking have been disclosed on serval occasions.
This list is not exhaustive. It will be completed as All Exclusive evolves. Each term will be also developed in a specific post with links to articles on the topic. This profusion of notions of Ethical tourism both similar and confusing led All Exclusive to share its own understanding of ethical tourism. Syndicated tourism is the vision of a tourism inviting the people of the world, travelers or not, in its definition, designing and management for it to meet peoples’ expectations and needs ; to finally be the genuine binding discovery experience it claims to be. It is also a call out to stress the fact that tourism, activity hiring over 280 million people, attracting 1 billion travelers and involving almost the 7 billion people living on the planet, has no efficient labor, civil nor customer union. All Exclusive does not aim to organise tours, Sysndicated Tourism is thus not a product but a symbol, not a concept but an activity : it is using a place like All Exclusive to have one’s rights, principles, struggles and expectations known to the public.